The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of Southern Sudan (CPA) was signed on 9 January 2005 between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). The CPA brought an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War, which had lasted for more than 20 years and claimed the lives of an estimated two million people.
The CPA was the culmination of years of negotiations between the Sudanese government and the SPLM/A. The agreement provided a framework for the redistribution of power and resources between the north and south, as well as a pathway to greater autonomy for the south.
Under the CPA, the southern region of Sudan was granted its own government, legislative assembly, and judiciary. The agreement also provided for the demarcation of the border between the north and south, the sharing of oil revenues, and the integration of the SPLM/A into the national government.
One of the most significant provisions of the CPA was the creation of a referendum for the people of southern Sudan to choose whether to remain part of Sudan or become an independent nation. The referendum was held in January 2011, and an overwhelming majority of the southern Sudanese voted in favor of independence.
The CPA was hailed as a historic achievement for Sudan, with international leaders and organizations lauding the agreement as a model for conflict resolution in other parts of the world. The United Nations played a significant role in supporting the implementation of the CPA, providing peacekeeping forces and technical assistance.
Despite its successes, the CPA faced numerous challenges in its implementation. Issues such as the demarcation of the border and the sharing of oil revenues remained contentious, and violent clashes erupted in the border areas in the years leading up to the referendum.
In the end, however, the CPA succeeded in bringing an end to one of the longest and most brutal conflicts in Africa`s history and paving the way for the birth of a new nation. The Republic of South Sudan was officially established on 9 July 2011, marking a new era of hope and opportunity for the people of the world`s youngest nation.
In conclusion, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of Southern Sudan was a monumental achievement in the history of Sudan and Africa as a whole. It provided a framework for conflict resolution, power-sharing, and a pathway to independence for the people of southern Sudan. Despite its challenges, the CPA remains a shining example of how diplomacy can bring an end to even the most protracted and devastating conflicts.